Workshops

Browse All Current Workshops

A Walk through Grief: What to Expect and How to Work with the Bereaved


Grief is universal and will eventually emerge in the practice of all professionals. Are you ready? This workshop will provide clinicians with a useful guide on the varied presentations and symptoms e...

Addictions in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer Communities: If Gay Means Happy Why Am I Always Getting High?


LGBT people are more likely to use alcohol, tobacco and other drugs than the general population. They are also less likely to abstain from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, they report higher rates ...

Assessment and Differential Diagnosis of Children


This workshop seeks to enhance the clinicians ability to diagnose child mental disorders accurately and comprehensively. We will address two major topic areas: 1) the key factors in accurate assessme...

Attachment Theory: A Helpful Framework for Understanding and Intervening with At-Risk Children and Their Families


Secure attachment has been found to be associated with better social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes of children. Maternal sensitivity is thought to be a major contributor to the development of ...

Attachment-Focused Therapy for Adoptive Families


In this workshop, participants will learn to recognize the symptoms of impaired attachment and the profound impact of impaired attachment on the adoptive family. Interventions to facilitate family at...

Autism, ADHD, and SPD in Childhood: Clinical Considerations and Advocacy Opportunities


This interactive workshop will explore the autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sensory processing disorder in children ages 3-10 years old. Professionals who are ...

Basic Psychopharmacology for People with Co-Occurring Diagnoses


This workshop takes a look at best practice as it applies to prescribing (or not prescribing) psychotropic medications for a person in recovery with both a mental illness and substance abuse (MISA) d...

Beyond Healing to Thriving: Post Traumatic Growth through Mindfulness, Cognitive Behavior Therapy, and the Arts


This workshop will facilitate a better understanding of Posttraumatic Growth, how to encourage and promote it, and its implications to clinical practice and our communities. Participants will learn ...

Brief Therapeutic Practices and Lifestyle Changes to Enhance Recovery


Lifestyle and behavioral choices have a profound impact on the health of adults and may contribute to premature death, particularly for those with addiction and/or mental health issues. One of the b...

Building the Helping Relationship


The purpose of this workshop is to explore how several microcounseling skills, including open invitations, open questions, reflections, and information giving, can be used by case managers to build s...

CBT with Latino Populations


This workshop will describe the adaptations of cognitive behavioral therapy for working with the Latino population. The main focus of this workshop is to discuss, and apply the fundamental concepts o...

Challenging Cognitive Distortions in School-Age Children


Cognitive-behavioral interventions (CBI) can be a viable approach to remediate behavioral deficits and excesses by providing clients with the tools necessary to control their own behavior. Cognitive...

Challenging Racial Disparities Conference: A Call to Action


This year's keynote speaker is Dr. Derald Wing Sue, a nationally acclaimed author and professor from Columbia University and a pioneer on multiracial counseling, microaggressions, and challenging rac...

Child Interviews: Understanding the Ins and Outs


There is a world of difference between conducting adult and child interviews. A different skill set is required to be effective with each age group. This workshop is designed to give participants a d...

Clinical Work with LGBTQ Youth


LGBT youth have higher rates of mental health issues, substance abuse issues, involvement in the child welfare & criminal justice system and represent half of the homeless unaccompanied youth populat...

Communicating With Adolescents: Speaking Their Language


When parents and helping professionals try to start a conversation with adolescents, they often get one-word answers or no answers at all. Many families and helping professionals struggle to underst...

Community Organizing and Ethics


This workshop will focus primarily on community organizing and will help prepare participants to be effective leaders in advocating for their clients and social justice. This workshop will examine t...

Coping with Functional Loss and Environmental Changes


This workshop focuses on the impact of functional losses and environmental changes experienced throughout the aging process and the varied coping responses that are possible. Attention will be given ...

Core Issues in Clinical Supervision


This interactive workshop will focus on demonstrating major elements of clinical supervision in social work. Participants will have the opportunity to observe modeled activities, discuss the element...

Creating Effective Training Presentations


At the heart of every training is how well the trainer transmits their knowledge and experience. Heres a workshop designed to enhance the trainers ability to create thorough, effective and interestin...

Cross-Cultural Competence Skills: Bridging Cultural Differences with Respect and Understanding


This workshop provides professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary to communicate effectively across cultural differences in a variety of contexts. Inter-Cultural Competence calls for a fra...

Cultural Competence and Equity in LGBT Health Care: Strategies for Medical and Mental Health Providers


This workshop provides health care practitioners with strategies to promote culturally competent medical and mental health care to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. Topics include ...

Cultural Competency in Trauma Treatment


The workshop will begin with a definition of trauma and the large array of situations which may produce traumatic experiences. It will then proceed with an introduction of the research available stip...

Cutting-Edge Ethical Issues in the Digital Age


Complete all your ethics CEUs with Dr. Frederic Reamer, one of the nation's leading experts on professional ethics. This conference will explore cutting-edge ethical issues arising out of social work...

Data Analysis For Social Workers


Today, more than ever, statistical training is vital for high quality social work practice. Whether you are a clinician or administrator, a student or seasoned professional, you will find statistics ...

Dealing With Angry Students and Tantrums Effectively


It seems each year we are faced in dealing with more and more students who are getting angrier and angrier. Why are our students angry? How do we deal with students when they are annoyed, frustrated ...

Dealing with Challenges When Working with Parents and Families


Whether you're an educator, CST member, administrator or mental health professional you share one thing in common-dealing with difficult parents and families. All of us have experienced problematic,...

Dealing with Supervisory Challenges in Non-Clinical Settings


The supervisory relationship is one of the most critical relationships in the development of the helping professional through the course of a career. This relationship and its dynamics model eleme...

Developing Cultural Competence in a Multicultural Society


Commitment to cultural competence is growing among healthcare professionals and providers. This interactive workshop will explore cultural competence from a global perspective and demonstrate how al...

Developing Objectives and Planning Your Workshop


This workshop will address the basic elements needed to present a successful training program. You will explore how adults learn and how that impacts on the instructional techniques you use. You will...

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Theory, Structure, and Skills


DBT is model of psychotherapy developed and researched to treat some of the most challenging populations seeking mental health treatment in our practices and agencies. Day 1 of this three-day series ...

Diet, Nutrition, and Eating Behaviors: Helping Clients Make Changes


This workshop will discuss the role that nutrition and diet play in overall brain and body functioning, with a specific focus on the food-mood connection and mental, emotional, and behavioral domains...

Differences and Diversity in the Experience, Effects and Treatment of Trauma


New Jersey is the fifth most culturally diverse state in our nation. Traumatic stress reactions are greatly influenced by an individual's culture, ethnicity and spirituality. In addition, pre-existin...

Eating Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Sorting Out a Complicated Symptom Picture


Eating disorders and OCD are 2 extremely complicated illnesses and often times, their symptoms overlap. The eating disorder client obsesses about calories and compulsively exercises. The Obsessive ...

Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) - a Mind-Body Approach to the Anxiety Spectrum Disorders


This how-to-do-it workshop focuses on learning meridian techniques to treat the anxiety spectrum disorders - including simple phobias, generalized anxiety, panic, acute stress reaction and trauma. T...

Emotional Process in Society - How it Promotes Regressive and Progressive Periods and its Influence on Families


Societal Emotional Process, a Bowen concept, describes how both progressive and regressive periods in societies are strongly influenced by an emotional system operating on a societal level. During re...

End-of-Life Issues


Professionals working with clients at the end of their life are dealing with a powerful and complex process. This workshop will address the topic of "What is dying well?" (physically, emotionally and...

Environmental Justice: A Social Work Perspective


The water crisis in Flint, the Dakota Access pipelines, disastrous hurricanes in the Caribbean islands, and the earthquakes in Mexico when environmental issues impact marginalized populations, socia...

Ethical and Legal Issues in Substance Abuse Counseling


This interactive workshop focuses on the major elements of legal and ethical issues for those clinicians working in the substance abuse field. It is important to know that the legal/ethical standards...

Ethical Issues in Social Work Practice


Clinicians face ethical dilemmas on a daily basis and must make ethical decisions as a part of their practice. In this interactive experiential workshop, participants will explore theories of ethical...

Ethical Issues in the Schools


This workshop will examine current ethical issues facing school social workers, guidance counselors, and teachers. Topics to be included are alcohol and substance abuse, eating disorders, mental hea...

Ethical Social Work Practice in a Digital Age


Are you and your practice ready for the new revisions to the NASW Code of Ethics involving technology, digital communications and social media? Join attorney, social worker and ethicist David C. Barr...

Ethics Essentials in Geriatric Care


Participants will learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in both every day and biomedical situations, especially those dilemmas commonly arising in geriatric care, and will practice methodologies for et...

Ethnogeriatrics: Working with Older Adults of Various Cultures


Understanding of an older adult's culture is essential to effective work with them and their family. In this workshop participants will learn about different cultures in New Jersey and the values and...

Experiential and Interactive Training Methods


Experiential and interactive training methods are vital parts of the trainer's toolkit. In this training session, we will begin by demonstrating and discussing experiential methods, i.e., methods tha...

Family Therapy 101


This workshop offers a tool kit for the child/family therapist working in both agency and private practice settings. The goal is to provide attendees with enhanced skills and techniques to build the...

Family Treatment Approaches in Working with Trauma


When trauma impacts a family member the entire system is affected. This workshop will explore the intersection of the context and the impact of trauma on members of a family and the varied response o...

Family-Focused Therapy for Post-Institutionalized Children


Post-Institutionalized children often demonstrate a pattern of behavioral symptoms. This workshop will provide the practitioner with the assessment tools to determine what the behavioral symptoms are...

Fatherhood


What is the role of the modern day father and how do we cultivate a climate of participation and inclusion. Modern day family structure and concept is morphing on a regular basis. As a result of divo...

Fundraising Essentials


This introductory workshop is designed for nonprofit professionals who are employed in today's highly competitive environment. Participants in this workshop will learn the basic concepts, theories an...

Gestalt Theory, Therapy, Technique Level II


This Gestalt level II workshop will deepen your understanding of Gestalt theory and its application in the therapy session. The workshop will build upon the theory and therapy techniques covered in t...

Grant Writing Essentials


This introductory workshop on grant writing covers strategies to effectively pursue funding with federal, state, and local government agencies; corporate philanthropy; private foundations; and high n...

Group Counseling with Survivors


This workshop will identify and explore techniques relative to group counseling with survivors of violence and allow participants to gain an understanding of skill application in group process, group...

Health and Wellness for People with Developmental Disabilities


Health and wellness is vital to our quality of life and overall sense of wellbeing. In this workshop we will discuss the unique challenges of promoting health and wellness in individuals with develop...

Helping Couples Get the Love They Want


Counseling couples can be the most challenging work of all. Do you ever find yourself working with couples and feeling like you have no idea what to do? Imago Theory and skills will give you a clinic...

How is Anxiety Good for You?


While many do their best to avoid feeling anxious, anxiety is not all bad, in fact it can be good for you. It functions as a cue for examining how stress is managed and what contributes to an anxiou...

How NOT To Fail as a Therapist: Strategies for Preventing Premature Termination in Psychotherapy


This workshop will detail the research evidence on variables affecting premature dropout and poor outcomes in psychotherapy. Elements of the therapeutic role and process, from intake through terminat...

Human Resources Management


Human Resource administration can be an organization's biggest challenge. Successful management of human resources promotes and enhances the skills and abilities of employees by creating and engaging...

Human Trafficking-Protecting the Most Vulnerable


New Jersey has increasingly become aware of the presence of the human trafficking and domestic minor sex trafficking. Healthcare providers play a crucial role in helping victims of human trafficking ...

If it isn't in Writing, it Didn't Happen: Documentation to Protect Your Client, Yourself, and Your Organization


Documentation is vital part of the professional's responsibility; however, it is often given insufficient attention. Writing progress notes, reports & letters requires the human service professional ...

Incorporating Cultural Competence into Ethical Decision Making


This interactive workshop will explore several different perspectives regarding ethical decision making. It will examine the role of cultural competence in making ethical decisions and outline how th...

Individual Treatment Approaches in Working with Trauma


The decision for someone to seek help, rely on oneself, or do nothing about a problem after a traumatic event is a complicated one. Providing clinicians with an overview of the major stages for the h...

Intervention Planning in K-12 Settings for Students Engaging in Repeated Behavior Problems


The purpose of this workshop is to provide participants with tools and resources for understanding why behavior patterns form and how to select and plan for interventions. Workshop content will focu...

Interviewing Skills Throughout the Lifespan


In this workshop, the use of basic interviewing techniques will be explored throughout the life cycle. Developmental theories will be discussed and utilized as a guide to the interview process. Pra...

LCSW/LSW Examination Preparation Course


It is wise to do everything you can to pass the exam the first time. This popular interactive workshop will give participants the opportunity to learn test-taking strategies, practice test-taking wit...

Legal and Ethical Issues in Child/Adolescent Mental Health


This workshop will outline the legal and ethical requirements in providing mental health services to children and adolescents. The first half of the workshop will set out the legal framework as defi...

Legal and Ethical Issues in Clinical Supervision


This interactive workshop focuses on major legal and ethical issues involved in clinical supervision. Participants will have the opportunity to rate their own ethical and legal knowledge, discuss the...

Legal and Ethical Issues in Working with Trans Youth


What if we are going on an overnight field trip? Questions like this arise regarding the obligations for school districts, residential, inpatient facilities, employers when working with Trans Individ...

Living as a Multicultural Family: An Adoptive Family Perspective


When people choose to build a multicultural family through adoption, they incur the responsibility of redesigning their entire family's cultural identity. To succeed, parents must explore what it mea...

Management of Budgeting and Finance


Included in the job descriptions of most senior and executive non-financial management personnel are various accounting and financial responsibilities they are required to oversee and manage. Their i...

Managing Differences and Difficult Supervisees


The focus of this interactive workshop will be major elements of managing differences and difficult supervisees in supervision. In addition to discussing the cultural contexts of the supervisory rel...

Memory Care Innovation-Practical Tools, Tips, Techniques and Approaches


Step into the world of Memory Care. This interactive workshop will offer participants the opportunity to gain a better understanding of dementia. Practical and person directed approaches to caring fo...

Models and Techniques of Clinical Supervision


The goal of this workshop is to provide a theoretically based, focused, and practical experience in the use of supervision models. This interactive workshop will focus on three different models of su...

Mothers, Daughters and Food: Understanding Disordered Eating


This workshop will explore the relationship between mothers, daughters and food and how the dynamics of disordered eating originate. An overview of the role of food and eating at each developmental s...

Motivational Interviewing: Inviting and Acknowledging Change Talk


This workshop is for clinicians seeking an advanced level of Motivational Interviewing (MI) training. The learner will consider MI's application to a broad use of behavior changes ranging from health...

Parents as Healers: Dynamic Ways to Integrate Caregivers in Play Therapy


There is increasing evidence that involving parents in play therapy is more effective than treating the child alone. This workshop will teach an overall approach, "Parents as Healers," where parents/...

Positive Psychology for Clinical Practice


This workshop will explore the rapidly growing and exciting field of Positive Psychology. In the past we have focused on what is wrong and not working in our lives. Positive Psychology is the scienti...

Practical Case Management with Older Adults


Case Management practice is based on two important principles. The first involves respect and support for independence. The second involves the principle of using the least restrictive alternative in...

Practical Parenting Toolbox


The purpose of this engaging multimedia workshop is to teach professionals an overview of practical, "ready to use," skills regarding parenting techniques. The overarching goal of the workshop is to...

Prison Break: Working with the Criminal Justice Client


Working with criminal justice connected clients can be challenging work. Having insight into the special needs of this population and specialized skills to work with them can make a significant diffe...

Promoting Wellness in Older Adults


Whole-person wellness depends on at least seven dimensions: physical, emotional, spiritual, vocational, environmental, social and intellectual. This workshop addresses each of these primary dimension...

Psychodynamic Concepts for the Child Therapist: How it Applies to Todays Therapeutic Interactions


Psychodynamic theory has evolved past Sigmund Freud, specifically in regards to treating children and adolescents. This workshop will help participants understand different psychodynamic schools of t...

Psychopharmacology with Children and Adolescents


A comprehensive psychiatric assessment is crucial for determining the appropriate use of psychotropic medications as part of mental health treatment of children or adolescents. This workshop explore...

Relationship Reboot: Tech Support for Love


This timely divorce/break up prevention workshop, provides clinicians and couples with the best of the best cutting edge techniques and skills Dr. Debra Castaldo has developed in over twenty-five yea...

Responding to Disaster


In this workshop, mental health professionals will explore psychosocial impact of disasters and terrorism, as well as strategies and systems for assessing the need for mental health intervention and ...

Safety in Practice


In any helping profession, direct contact with families and clients is essential to practice. Risk is an inevitable part of this relationship and can present in multiple forms. Interpersonal, environ...

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Diversity: Understanding the Needs of LGBT Individuals


This workshop provides an in-depth examination of sexual orientation and gender identity diversity, with a focus on the psychological and social issues facing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ...

Social Justice Practicum: Managing Conflicts and Challenges in the 21st Century


This workshop is designed for professional in human services, criminal justice, education, and related fields. In this workshop, participants will advance their knowledge about social justice and rel...

Social Media's Influence on Self-esteem and Self-regulation


This workshop will begin with an introduction to how social media influences both self-esteem and self-regulating behaviors. We will then move into examining various social media outlets. Newer soc...

Social Media: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly from a Social Work Perspective


This workshop will examine the impact social media, music, and advertising have on todays society. Overexposure to certain media outlets can influence how people develop their value system and how th...

Social Work Ethics: Dealing with Serious Practice Challenges


This workshop will review selected ethical principles from the Social Work Code of Ethics and provide an opportunity for practicing social workers at all levels, and in all sectors, to discuss the nu...

Social Work, Ethics and Professional Responsibilities


This workshop will examine the ethical and professional responsibilities that social workers have to their clients, to their colleagues and to the profession. Topics will include confidentiality and ...

Solution-Focused Practice


In a managed care environment, where treatment is often driven and constrained by time limits, it is critical for clinicians to have a diverse knowledge base of skills that enable them to provide eff...

Spanish for Social Service Settings


This highly interactive five-week, three hour per session course is designed for people working in the Social Services who come in contact with Spanish speaking clients and need some fundamental unde...

Starting Out: From Diagnosis through Early Childhood


Involvement with service systems for individuals with developmental disabilities begins for some families when their children are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Families' experiences with early...

Strategies for Managing Behaviors in Adoptive Families


The primary focus of work with traumatized children is to teach and support them to learn new ways of effectively managing their emotions and behaviors. In this interactive/skill based workshop, cli...

Stress Management for Managers and Supervisors


Program managers are responsible for the bottom line in their programs. They also are in the middle position in the organization between the Executive Director and the direct practice social workers...

Successful Treatment for Criminal Justice Clients: A Social Work Perspective


Participants of this workshop will become aware of the diversity and oppression that exists in the prison system. This workshop will also describe the set of symptoms, coined by Terence Gorski, call...

Suicide Prevention with Trans Youth


Suicide risk increases for trans individuals when they participate in a single gender therapy group with cisgender patients where microaggressions are unaddressed and clinicians, social work professo...

The Assessment and Treatment of Dissociative Disorders


Chronic trauma that occurs early in life has profound effects on personality development and can lead to the development of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This workshop will present an overvie...

The Dynamics of Addiction, Domestic Violence and Child Abuse


It is clear that all forms of abuse are destructive. This workshop will address the interrelationships between addiction, domestic violence and child abuse and the devastating impact they have on all...

The Effects of Trauma Across the Developmental Spectrum


A traumatic event has dramatic short and long term effects across all stages of human development. In this interactive two-day workshop we will examine these effects on infants, children, adolescents...

The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) and Tapping: Level II Evidence-Based Treatment for Emotional & Physical Pain


Level II EFT is for clinicians that want to continue to fine tune and expand their EFT skills. Pre-requisite is having taken any day long EFT training, including these in this brochure AND have recen...

The Link between Trauma and Substance Abuse: Causes, Signs, and Treatment Indications


This workshop is designed to educate both the substance abuse counselor and mental health professional on the prevalence of substance abuse and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and importance of cross...

The Neurobiology of Trauma/PTSD


The overall goal of this workshop is for practitioners to understand that the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is not merely a psychosocial phenomenon and to be better able to pro...

The Secret Life of Hoarding


According to the International OCD Foundation (IOCD): "Hoarding has been a hidden disorder for many years and before the early 1990?s, there was little research on topic." Increased awareness with ho...

Third Annual Conference on Youth Development and Justice - DAY TWO


Sponsored by the Rutgers Center on Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice and the Center on Violence Against Women at the Rutgers School of Social Work. This page is to receive social work continuing ...

Through our Eyes- Children, Violence and Trauma


In this workshop we will look at the incidence, patterns, and occurrences of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Additionally, the workshop will review how PTSD negatively affects children in var...

Trauma Informed Programs: A Forum for Agency Planning and Change


This workshop is designed for program administrators, supervisors and individuals who have a desire to become a trauma informed care setting, and who can affect systems change within their agency. W...

Triggered in Sessions? Tools to Handle Delicate Situations


All clinicians occasionally experience some reactions or countertransference when working with a particular client. This workshop offers guidance and a toolkit to be used in the management of delicat...

Understanding and Improving Relationships in Later Life


Relationships in older adults are varied, rich and complex. The quality of these relationships has an enormous impact on the coping ability of clients and their caregivers. Providers of treatment ar...

Understanding Child Development Through a Cultural Lens


The challenges that children face while growing up are largely impacted by their environment. It is important to understand this environment through the "cultural looking glass". This workshop will h...

Understanding Sexual Harassment: The Not-So Hidden Acts of Privilege and Power


Sexual harassment is a prevalent and pervasive social epidemic that has a devastating impact on our community. This workshop will increase your understanding about the dynamics of sexual harassment, ...

Understanding the DSM-5: Diagnostic Changes and Clinical Implications


The ability to assess and diagnose is a core competency for mental health providers. The significant changes in the DSM-5 manual require practitioners to modify their current understanding of diagnos...

Understanding the Immigration Process and Supporting Immigrant Families through their Traumatic Experiences


Immigrants experience many traumatic experiences on their journey to arrive in the United States. Immigrants to the U.S. experience stress related to acculturation, discrimination, employment, legal...

Understanding Violence Against Women


Geared toward professionals who are eager to expand their knowledge of the issues of violence against women, this important workshop provides participants with an understanding of the fundamental iss...

Vicarious Traumatization: Sometimes the Cost of Caring


As professionals working with trauma, we sit with and vicariously live through--watching, listening, feeling another's plight. The empathic engagement with those who have experienced trauma, be it, a...

Violence Against Women and Technology


Participants taking this workshop will learn about the ways perpetrators of domestic violence, sexual violence, and stalking use various technologies to harm and control victims. Additionally, parti...

Violence Against Women in Diverse Populations


Recognizing the critical impact that issues of race, culture, sexual orientation, religious identity, ability and other diverse identities has on victims' experiences of violence, this workshop provi...

Walking the Four-Fold Way- How Ancient Archetypes Can Inform End-of-Life Care


End-of-life care must go beyond the traditional medical model in order to provide a more holistic approach to the support of terminally ill patients and their families. This includes addressing the ...

Whats Eating You? The Psychology of Eating


This workshop focuses on understanding the psychological processes underlying humans development of eating behaviors and the adoption of both healthy and maladaptive cognitions and behaviors concerni...

Working with Asian Indian- Hindu Families: Moving towards Culturally Responsive Interventions


This workshop is designed to offer clinicians strategies and techniques necessary to offer culturally responsive treatment to Asian Indian- Hindu clients. Key concepts of Hinduism such as the theory ...

Working with Case Studies and Role Plays in Training


In this workshop you will learn to develop case studies and role-plays for your workshops. The basic elements of case studies and role-plays and how they relate to the training objectives will be pre...

Working with Latino Cultures


This training will expose the participants to the Stages of Cultural Identity Development Model. Through small group discussions, role plays, case vignettes and large group participation, they will i...

Working with Perpetrators of Domestic Violence


Geared towards professionals providing clinical services, this workshop presents information on working with perpetrators of domestic violence. Participants will become familiar with perpetrator cha...